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Meetings between Chinese and American civilizations in ancient times
上古中華文明與上古美洲文明之淵源

By Songnisan Guo (Chairman Peace Media)

American Civilization began about 10,000 years ago and to date has not been discovered no trace of the ape-man on this continent, so it is generally thought that the Native Americans migrated from other continents; around the quaternary and the last period glaciation (10,000 to 40,000 years ago), human groups from Asia crossed the strait frozen Bering Sea in successive migrations to the Americas to hunt animals, then gradually moving southward into Mexico about 21,000 years ago, and South America about 10,000 and 14,000 years ago.

In 1925, American archaeologist Nelson discovered in the Gobi (Mongolia) a lithic artifact cuneiform, then finding other identical in Alaska; argued that artifacts found in Asia and America were so uniform that it was impossible that they had created in the form isolated the respective inhabitants of each continent. Between 1972 and 1974, Chinese archaeologists Hutouliang discovered, Hebei Province (China) several cuneiform stone artifacts similar to those discovered in America. Jia Lanpo, famous Chinese archaeologist, hypothesized as to the microlith culture embodied by the cuneiform nucleus in America could arise in people Northern China.

Additionally, Dr. Yuri Mochanov Academy of Sciences of the UnionSoviet, artifacts discovered in Siberia equal to those found in the Gobi and Alaska, including some with around 30,000 years old and others with around 20,000 years old, hard evidence to prove the hypothesis of migration of homo sapiens late Paleolithic age, from the Gobi (Mongolia) to northern America via Siberia hunt wild animals
At the end of the Ice Age, about 10,000 to 40,000 years ago, Asian groups migrated through Bering Strait into the Americas
At the end of the Ice Age, about 10,000 to 40,000 years ago, Asian groups migrated through Bering Strait into the Americas
Approximately 3,000 years ago, in the corresponding period at the end of the Shang Dynasty and early Zhou Dynasty in China, on the coast of Central America in the area that today corresponds to the south east of Mexico and parts of Guatemala, an archaic culture appeared suddenly, extending its influence to rest of Central and South America because of its strong political and religious power, its advanced social system and its particular artistic style; Olmec civilization was the mother civilization Central America. As forerunner of civilization in the Americas, its rise and fall They are permeated by unknown factors, something mysterious. In connection with the sudden appearance of the Olmec culture, historians do not have a uniform opinion, support splitting into two criteria Main: the "diffusionist" approach and the "independent inventors."

Based on the research of Professor Michael D. Coe, an authority of the University of Yale in these matters, some historians support the theory of "independent inventors" He is arguing that the Olmec culture developed independently and by itself trial shared by most academics in the West.

Leading the diffusionist criteria are G.K. Ekholm, B. J. Meggers (US academics) Joseph de Guignes (French), Guo Moruo, Dong Zuobin, Lanpo Gu Ling Chunsheng, Songshi Xu (Chinese) and others. By this criterion, the American and Chinese civilizations have a probable relationship between them in antiquity. In the early 80s, based on the discovery of a stone anchor ancient seabed South America and some records in Chinese classics, historian Fang Zhongfu oceanographic concluded that in ancient China groups sailed the seas multiple times across the Pacific Ocean to the Americas. Professor Zhang Guangzhi, anthropologist and archaeologist at Harvard University, then made another opinion called "succession of Mayan and Chinese civilizations." Zhang believes that the ancestors who crossed the Bering Strait from Asia to America already had a developed culture, and the Yin-Shang civilization the Maya civilization of Mesoamerica can be considered descendants of a same ancestor.

Within the diffusionist criterion is the hypothesis called "Yin trip to America," which has been received the most attention and controversy in the Chinese and foreign academic circles. The first argue was the English translator Walter Henry Medhurst in the nineteenth century, noting that the war between King Wang (founder of the Zhou Dynasty) and King Zhou (the last emperor of the Shang Dynasty) could maritime cause displacement of members of the Yin people to escape the conflict, who by Because of storms they sailed adrift coming to America. Teachers Luo Zhenyu and Wang Guowei, experts studies inscriptions on bones of the Yin Dynasty Sinologists were who first proposed the possibility that Yin had sailed to the continent American; Guo Moruo subsequently adhered to this criterion.

In recent years, scholars Wang Dayou, Song Bao-zhong, Chen Hanping, Professor US Xuhui (许 辉) and others have delved into the study of this hypothesis, delivering new arguments in favor of that approach:

  • Some pottery, jade and stone and ritual ceremonies Olmec and Shang Dynasties Zhou have many similarities.
  • The archaeological site of "La Venta" Olmec culture has a strong influence of Yin-Shang Dynasty.
  • The sacrifices and ceremonies performed in the Olmec culture follow the same patterns made in the Shang and Zhou dynasties.
  • The signs carved jade tables by the Olmecs and inscriptions bones or tortoise shells have Similar symbols; Wang Dayou and Xuhui (许 辉) managed to partially decode Olmec symbols based on the language of inscriptions on the bones.
  • The veneration of jade objects Olmec culture and the emblems, totems and figures of jaguars they seem carved cut in same cloth as the Dynasty Shang, due to its impressive likeness.
The statues of the Olmec culture and inhabitants of northern China They have not the slightest difference.
The Olmec culture and the emblems, totems and figures of jaguars they seem carved cut in same cloth as the Dynasty Shang, due to its impressive likeness.

In the ceremonial center of the Olmec sacrifice, "La Venta" have unearthed 16 statues jadeite saved whose faces resemble the Chinese physiognomy and whose heads have been subject to manual modifications to make them higher and longer. These high and long heads are exactly such as those worshiped in the Shang-Yin dynasty. Behind these statues there were 6 tables of jade, and their sizes were similar figures to the inscriptions on bones and bronze objects recorded in the Yin-Shang Dynasty. According to the findings of research conducted by Wang Dayou and others recorded in these jade tables correspond to names belonging to ancestors Yin people.

In conclusion, these jade statues and tables found in excavations demonstrate sacrifices center the rites of sacrifice to the ancestors. Additionally, the image Jaguar in the Olmec culture is prominent, has features religious, and is in the statues.

The academic Venezuelan Antonio Moreno argues that by joining this group of immigrants to the Olmec culture, brought his expertise in agricultural irrigation, their theocratic ideas and Advanced

Knowledge mathematical, astronomical and construction. These peculiarities Olmec are related with the cultural influence of the Yin-Shang Dynasty, one of whose main features was casting bronze objects.
Model tiger in ceramics, Chavin culture
Model tiger in ceramics, Chavin culture.
 Two-tailed Tiger and bird fu Shang-Yin dynasty.
Two-tailed Tiger and bird fu Shang-Yin dynasty.
Tiger head carved in stone Dynasty Shang-Yin
Tiger head carved in stone Dynasty Shang-Yin
Regarding the historical background of the hypothesis of "Travel Yin to America ", according to research findings in the last years of the Yin-Shang Dynasty, one day in the first month of the lunar year (Yinli, calendar Lunar Yin Dynasty), about the year 1,045 BC King Wu of the Zhou Dynasty led his Mengjin army to cross, so Dixin (name of King Zhou) sent 700,000 soldiers slaves to intercept the enemy in Muye. Slaves to the enemy soldiers changed sides and the battle was lost, dying King Dixin in a fire at his palace. In fact, the elite troops of Dixin They conducted an expedition against the kingdom and remained Lin Dongyi, which allowed the king Wu crush an empty Chaoge. After the fall of the Yin-Shang state, approximately 100,000 elite soldiers who were in Dongyi under the command of General Houxi You disappeared without trace, so without any historical record, clarify this mystery has become a ceaseless search. At the same time of the extinction of the Yin-Shang Dynasty, disappearing Yin army commanded by Houxi You suddenly the Olmec culture emerged in the Yucatan in Central America, with profound features of the Shang-Yin civilization, which naturally leads to scholars to theorize if the Yin were successful or not in their journey eastward to the mainland American.

Around the same time that the Olmec culture flourished in Central America, the Andes South America's famous Chavin civilization also arises suddenly, one of the oldest in Peru, whose beginning can be placed around the year 1300 BC. During the sixteenth century in the valley of the river Mosina (莫斯纳?) Hualisi region (华 利斯?) (North of Peru), it was found an architectural complex in Stone Chavin culture. The complex was used as a temple to offer Aboriginal sacrifices and pray to the gods. The objects recovered from the excavations include different heads and human statues and various dragon heads and jaguar carved in stone seals ancient Chinese civilization since the same gods and totems were worshiped in the Ancient China. Several European and American scholars agree that worship Dragon and the jaguar in Olmec and Chavin comes from China, can be said to have the same origin.
Ceramic culture Prehistoric Qingliangang in China, decorated with the motif the octagonal star
The Yi minority Gaza in China with lines Star octagonal
Yi ethnic minority, Tibetan and Qiang living in southwestern China have a long ancestral history. People say that in the transition period of the Shang and Zhou dynasties (since 1,100 BC to 400 BC approximately), part of the population of such minorities they migrated south (today day Vietnam) fleeing war and as the Philippines, Fiji and Polynesia islands, even reaching Peru. Accepting these stories, one could understand the emergence of the Chavin culture and great influence of these ethnic groups in the same.

Being part of the yellow race, Yi, Tibetan and Qiang ethnic groups share the southwestern region clothing, songs and dances, customs and legends similar Eastern trip, and words and Common expressions. These are evidences that help check the criterion of displacement sea east of the ethnic minorities mentioned during the time of the Shang and Zhou dynasties; in fact, he explains the flourishing of Chavin culture in America. Wang Xu, a professor at the Conservatory Music Central has explained clearly the same function not only of the use of musical instruments as the ocarina, the syrinx, snail and bone flute used by Native Americans and their similarity with the instruments music used by ethnic Qiang Tibetan and Chinese, but also uniformity complete between its pentatonic scale musical notes (do, re, mi, sol, la) with those used in China (gong, shang, jiao, zhi and yu) and Mexico (ti, qui, ta, co, t).
The reasons for octagonal stars they can be found today in many aspects of daily life in the region Andina
On the left, typical Bolivian indigenous dress.
Right costume of Bai minority Yunnan Province (China)
The famous Chinese winemaker Liu Yaohan has also explained that part of the natives in America were inhabitants of Yunnan Province who migrated in remote antiquity, noting that the solar calendar of the Yi ethnic group has around 10,000 years old, has many Common features with the 18-month calendar of the Mayans and the Incas; similarly, the worship of the jaguar and the eagle, the solar calendar of 10 months of the Yi and the reason for the star octagonal reveal the original relationship between Maya and Inca cultures and culture of China Yi.
In 2006, the President of Peace Communications Media Songnian Guo (third from right) with the Song Sinologists Baozhong (far left) and Wang Dayou (second left), responding to the invitation of the Secretary General of the Community Andina Freddy Ehlers (far right) traveled to the countries of the Andean region for research and cultural exchanges. In this photo, visiting the Archaeological Museum of Ecuador, along with his deputy and researcher Estelina Quinatoa Cotacachi (center).
In short, Chinese ancestors in ancient times They sail on eastward, so it is impossible that civilizations in America have no traces of ancient Chinese civilization, especially a significant influence of the dynasty Shang. We can say therefore that the emergence and development of civilization sold in America has definitely relationship with the ancient civilizations of China; without But the age of the time determines the lack of historical records which the study and testing is a task very difficult. In recent years, some discoveries American archaeological constitute a serious challenge to the criterion of "independent inventors" predominant in academic circles North America.

America has accepted the criterion of Asian ancestry Aboriginal Americans in that it relies. I am convinced that the investigation of the relationship between the civilizations of China and Latin in antiquity is a difficult journey that will take a long time. It is an issue that involves many disciplines such as history, archeology, linguistics, anthropology, etc., being the more important the correct understanding of world history and the history of transport in the old. This important project will be undertaken jointly by academics from China and America in close cooperation and joint research. This great work will have meaning very important to promote cultural exchanges and accelerate the friendly relations between the two sides of the Pacific, particularly China and Latin America.
EDITION: JOSE GUADALUPE OSORIO
The reasons for octagonal stars they can be found today in many aspects of daily life in the region Andina

Copyright 2015 Jose Guadalupe Osorio

Jade Artifact (Bi-Disk, “璧”) Discovered in Kentucky, U.S.
Receives an Interpretation
by Laurent CHEN (陳隆川)

(in English and Traditional Chinese)

Based on the information illustrated in the previous news reports and viewing high resolution photographs of the artifact, I would like to provide a summary concerning the explanations of the characters and the patterns inscribed on this Bi (“璧”) jade artifact, as below:

On one side thereof, the four oracle/bone characters are respectively “耘(1) 祺(2) 雨(3) 昌(4)” here under marked sequentially by numbers. They mean “Smooth agricultural operations and abundant rainfalls”, or in Chinese, “農務順遂,雨水豐沛” (thus wishing for great harvests. See Figure 1)

Jade Artifact
Figure 1
1. “云 / 耘” – This word indicates the shape of a kind of conventional plowing tool called “犁” for making trenches on the farm field. You can refer to the following link:
It generally means “agricultural operations”

2. “旗 / 祺” – In terms of forms, this character exhibits a FLAG, in which the straight line means a pole or a stick, with the flag flying or waving in the air. You can refer to the following link:
In modern days, people still use this word “祺” to express best wishes for smooth and trouble-free operations in commercial activities, public affair executions or personal lives, e,g., “商祺”, “台祺”, “公祺”, “鈞祺” etc.

3. “雨” – This character means “rain”, “precipitations”, which simulates the scenery of rainfall. You can refer to the following link:

4. “昌” – This character means “abundant”, “prosperous”, “rich” or the like. You can refer to the following link:
(You can separate the two connected closed circle/triangle having a dot therein and understand this word.)

Jade artifact figure 2
Meanwhile, on the other side thereof, my idea is there is a word on top, which indicates “卜” (it means “divination”), and is artistically or stylishly carved in order to signify the meaning of “雲” (Clouds) because this “云” may be also interpreted as “雲”. Everybody knows that, to rain, it has to have clouds gathered. In this way, these different words “云”, “耘” and “雲” having the same pronunciation can be adroitly and exquisitely connected and exhibited. In Chinese literal applications, there is a specific term referred as “同音轉注 (Transition of Same Pronunciation)” to describe such a variation.

Moreover, for the “creature” on this piece of jade artifact, my idea is it presents the “屏翳” or “雨師” (God of Rain or Master or Rain) in Chinese mythology and some people said it was a catfish (“鯰魚”.) Although this “figure” or “spirit” may be legendary or mythological, from the picture you can still clearly see the basic features of a fish (see Figure 2).

CHEN, Lung Chuan (Laurent) 2015-10-14 Taipei

Possible Chinese Bi Disk Found in a Kentucky Garden


“It was just laying there” the finder explained as he recalled the moment and the previous two years of inquiries to understand what it was, along with his frustration of not knowing how it ended up in his garden. Afterwards, and with a look on his face that he expected me to have all the answers, asked, “how do you think it got here”?

As with other such Chinese in appearance artifacts found in North America without supporting contextual information, I could only respond here are multiple possible explanations.

A more informative answer came from the Burke Museum in Washington State, responding to the finder's earlier inquiry and photograph. Paraphrasing...we don't know what it is, but similar objects have been found on the West coast of Mexico and “it should not have been found in your part of the country.”
Other responses, also based upon photographs, from universities, art dealers and museums were equally inconclusive. Some thought it was a 20th century fraud, others didn't know, and one based on personal inspection thought it to be authentic. Until it is subjected to rigorous
examination it's authenticity remains unknown.

What is known
This artifact was found in a small garden next to a pond, on heavily wooded acreage in a sparsely populated area of Harrison County, which the owner characterizes as being “in the middle of nowhere”. Several miles away are two earthen mounds and the general area has long been popular with surface collectors of Native American artifacts.
Based upon a specific gravity test and visual inspection, the disk is Nephrite Jade and has areas of a white surface film, which is concentrated around the bas-relief features. Interestingly, one side is darker than the other. The depictions of a possible Shui dragon and a partial bird, both playing prominent roles in Chinese mythology, add to the Chinese theme of the disk, along with the four script characters.

The history of the bi extends back to Neolithic China some 5,000 years ago. The earlier versions were simple disks with no ornamentation, but
became increasingly ornate with motifs representing deities associated with the cardinal directions and heaven and earth images. Aside from it's religious symbolism, the bi also represented the person's high social status and that he was of high moral character... and it ultimately accompanied the person in his grave.
Possible Chinese Bi-disk
Until such time when more definitive testing results are available, the enigmatic artifact remains a mystery to be solved.

The City of Seattle Means “One Water” in the Nahuatl Language

by Loren Jeffries

One of the fascinating features of Ancient Mesoamerican Culture was the Calendar, which not only provided a way to reference cycles of time, but also actual dates. It also provided the manner in which individuals were referenced, or named; people took their names from their birth dates, or rather, the birth date became their first name.
  
So the calendar date in the Central Valley of Mexico not only named the day and named the people, but whatever day upon which the first day of the year fell became the name of that entire year. (The Maya named years, or Tuns, Katuns and Baktuns, for the last day of the period.)

Usually the calendar date was conjoined with a descriptive name, rendering something like 8 Deer, Jaguar Paw, or 9 Wind, Flint Helmet; 8 Deer and 9 Wind being the birth dates of these individuals.

In the historical and genealogical codices of the Mexican Highlands, individuals are usually identified by only the number and Day Sign of their birth. (I go to some length in my book explaining the anomaly of a sophisticated information storage technology, using only 13 digits and 20 Day Signs, that provided birth records and even named the days that ended the

World Ages and the manner of their demise; 4 Jaguar, 4 Rain, 4 Wind, 4 Water, and the Age we are now in, 4 Movement, or Earthquake.

This unique way of recording history and dates and individuals has provided us today with some insightful views into the past, as well as glimpses into the future. For instance, we have the historical account of a figure from the Central Valley of Mexico who lived in the Tenth Century, whom we call Quetzalcoatl, or the Plumed Serpent. His full name was actually One Reed,Our Lord Plumed Serpent. In the Nahuatl language this is rendered as Ce Acatl, Tolpitzin Quetzalcoatl, ' Ce ' meaning one, and ' Acatl ', meaning reed. Tolpitzin translates as our lord, and Quetzalcoatl means plumed serpent.

In this story the pious priest was forced to leave Tula by an adversarial priesthood, the priesthood of Tezcatlipoca, and travel with his followers to build a new capital, Cholula, to which kings would go on pilgrimage to receive their investiture, or insignia of right to rule. In the codices we see these nobles having their noses pierced and receiving a nose pin.

After a time Quetzalcoatl departed into the sky, or sea, on a raft of snakes on the day of his birth and of his name, Ce Acatl, One Reed. He also predicted he would someday return in the future on the the date One Reed, Ce Acatl.

In this strange story of prophecy altering the future, five hundred years later, Cortes would make landfall on the coast of Mexico on the date One Reed. It was for this reason that Cortes was believed to be the returning Quetzalcoatl. Montezuma, the Aztec Emperor, even told Cortes that he himself was only holding the throne until the rightful lord, Quetzalcoatl, returned. So this legend played a huge role in the conquest of Mexico by the Conquistadores. But wait, there is more information for us in this story.

I recently relocated from Kentucky to the Seattle area because my son, Littlebird, decided to pursue his education at a college nearby. I had simply assumed that Seattle was named for the chief, Seattle. (For those of you unfamiliar with Chief Seattle, google up his famous speech; it is one of the most eloquent compositions ever delivered in the English Language.)

I explained earlier that 'Ce Acatl ' means One Reed in Nahuatl and Reed is one of twenty day signs. Another of those Day Signs from the Central Valley of Mexico is 'Water ', which is pronounced 'Atl ' in the Nahuatl language. So, in a word, or actually two words, Ce Atl means One Water in Nahuatl, the language of the Aztec, and Ce Atl IS Seattle.

The Nahuatl Language belongs to the Uto-Azteccan Language Group, and is represented by a number of tribal groups in North America, the Ute, Comanche and Shoshone among them. The recognition of the sound ' Ce Atl ' in the name Seattle means the custom of using numbers and Calendar Day Signs in personal names was not limited to Mesoamerica, but extended in North America as far as the Northwest Coast.

Conversely, we must infer that the Calendar from which these signs derive, was not limited to Mesoamerica either, but was in use among tribes in North America too, as far North as presentday Seattle, Washington.

I'll leave you with that thought and the icon for the last Day Sign in the Maya group of Sacred Count Day Signs, Ahau, which much resembles a modern' emoticon'. Littlebird tells me he associates emoticons with the death of written language.

the icon for the last Day Sign in the Maya group of Sacred Count Day Signs, Ahau
Credit: Judith Ann Griffith ©2006

Loren Jeffries, Seattle, Washington USA 2015

Loren Jeffries is a Native American Traditionalist, an artist, and a long-time student of the Maya culture.

Regarding his soon to be published book The Sacred Count / The Fractal Calendar of Ancient Mesoamerica, he said, "I began with the simple intent to investigate, for my own curiosity, the mystery of the calendar system of ancient Mesoamerica.

The fact that no one had ever explained how or why this system was devised began to interest me. Scores of writers have written on the subject, so there was plenty of material available, but to my knowledge no satisfactory explanation had ever been put forward. It was a mathematic mystery begging to be resolved."

For anyone who has puzzled over the Mesoamerican calendar, this book will intrigue you.

The Sacred Count / The Fractal Calendar of Ancient Mesoamerica will be available at Amazon.com Fall of 2015

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